Doctor Tristan Adams begins making penal colonies more humane by developing new methods to treat the criminally insane. At the same time the Federation began to convert penal colonies into asylums to treat rather than incarcerate prisoners.
An exotic fungus destroyed most of Tarsus IV’s food supply. As a result the governor of the colony, Kodos, orders the execution of 4,000 colonists to preserve food. James Kirk, at the age of 13, was one of the few surviving witnesses to this massacre.